Biodiversidad

La biodiversidad se refiere a la variedad de la vida, incluidos los ecosistemas, los complejos ecológicos de que forman parte, la diversidad entre las especies y la que existe dentro de cada especie. El número total de especies en el planeta es muy grande: se han descrito unos 1.7 millones pero se cree que existen muchas más, las estimaciones van de 5 a 12.5 millones como una aproximación razonable. Los ambientes más ricos en especies son los bosques húmedos tropicales, que posiblemente albergan más del 90% de las especies del planeta.

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¡Las cifras lo dicen todo!

  • Perú es uno de los 12 países que ostenta la mayor diversidad natural del planeta en todas las jerarquías ambientales.
  • Su diversidad cultural se expresa en 65 etnias distintas actualmente conocidas en el país, agrupadas en 13 familias lingüísticas.
  • El conjunto biogeográfico ecológico y cultural constituye la principal fortaleza del Perú.
  • El compendio del Dr. Antonio Brack, de 1998 registra la utilidad de cerca de 5000 especies aproximadamente 100 usos diferentes, con predominio de las plantas nativas silvestres y unas 1 922 especies cultivadas.
  • Las especies domesticadas y semidomesticadas son estimadas en 222.
  • La magnitud de los recursos fitogenéticos se expresa en la existencia de 54 351 registros de 255 especies de plantas en bancos genéticos.
  • En algunos sitios de los Andes se han registrado 50 variedades de papa.
  • En la zona de la puna de la provincia de Canchis, uno de los centros de origen mundial de la papa, se han registrado 256 ecotipos de papa y en otras 9 comunidades cusqueñas 539 cultivares de diferentes del mismo tubérculo.
  • El Reglamento de la Ley N° 26839 sobre la Conservación y Aprovechamiento Sostenible de la Diversidad Biológica establece el siguiente concepto de agrobiodiversidad “ La variabilidad de cultivos, animales de cria, organismos asociados con ellos dfentros de los complejos ecológicos de los que forma parte, esto incluye la diversidad entre especies y entre ecosistemas.

 

Fuente: Ecología del Perú

 

En Latinoamérica existen países megadiversos, es decir, en su territorio podemos encontrar numerosos tipos de ecosistemas y especies. Tal es el caso de Brasil, Colombia, México y Perú, donde muchas de las culturas precolombinas poseían conocimientos y practicaban modos sostenibles de vivir con su entorno. Actualmente esta riqueza cultural está muy reducida y se le ha sustituido por una actitud masificada de consumo, que se ha convertido en la principal razón del deterioro ambiental.

 

La protección de la flora y fauna debe ser un compromiso para toda la humanidad pues desde su aparición el hombre se ha favorecido de los beneficios de las plantas y los animales. En las últimas décadas, la explotación incontrolada de la flora y fauna ha provocado que muchas especies se hayan extinguido o estén en vías de desaparecer.

Estadísticas oficiales del Proyecto de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente (PNUMA), señalan que más de 34 mil especies vegetales están actualmente en peligro de extinción. En 100 años, 50% de la flora y la fauna mundial podrían desaparecer. La disminución acelerada y cada vez mayor de la diversidad en los ámbitos genéticos de especies y ecosistémicos, no sólo resulta de por sí indeseable, sino que representa además una gran amenaza para el bienestar material humano, pues implica una capacidad reducida de los ecosistemas para la provisión de productos y servicios clave.

 

La biodiversidad de todos los países de la región se encuentra amenazada. Por ejemplo, Brasil ocupa el segundo lugar mundial en número de especies de aves en peligro de extinción (103 especies); Perú y Colombia ocupan el quinto lugar, con 64 especies cada uno. En las islas del Caribe varias especies originales se han extinguido por la introducción de especies no nativas o por la destrucción de su hábitat natural.

Una de las causas por las que se ha disminuido el número de especies es la caza y el comercio de las que se consideran silvestres, dicho comercio se ha incrementado a partir de la década de 1980 debido a la gran demanda de los países desarrollados de América del Norte, Asia y Europa. A esta actividad se le considera el tercer comercio ilegal más redituable del mundo, sólo después de las armas y las drogas. Los métodos para traficar son similares y en esta práctica mueren dos de cada tres ejemplares capturados.

Es urgente preservar la biodiversidad que aún queda, especialmente en los bosques tropicales del Amazonas y en los ecosistemas costeros donde habitan centenares de especies que garantizan la continuidad de vida en el planeta.

Fotos: Walter Wust

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